Posted by & filed under Emotional Intellegence, empathy, healthcare, jobs, Mental Health, My Projects, My Research, NHS, occupational health, Publications, Research, work.

We are all well aware of how the wellbeing of healthcare staff can affect the quality and safety of care. I have also talked at length about the wellbeing of health care staff and the theories surrounding work-related psychological distress. But do we really have any concrete idea of what shows workplace compassion for healthcare staff?

My research published in collaboration with Dr. Wendy Clyne, Dr. Karen Deeny and Dr. Rosie Kneafsey asked Twitter users to contribute their views about what activities, actions, policies, philosophies or approaches demonstrate workplace compassion in healthcare using the hashtag #ShowsWorkplaceCompassion. It can be cited as follows:

Clyne W, Pezaro S, Deeny K, Kneafsey R. Using Social Media to Generate and Collect Primary Data: The #ShowsWorkplaceCompassion Twitter Research Campaign. JMIR Public Health Surveill 2018;4(2):e41. DOI: 10.2196/publichealth.7686. PMID: 29685866

Image result for compassion

The results of this study outlined 19 things or ‘Themes’ in relation to what shows workplace compassion for healthcare staff as follows…

  Leadership and Management
1 Embedded organizational culture of caring for one another
2 Speaking openly to learn from mistakes
3 No blame/no bullying management
4 Inspiring leaders and collective leadership
5 Financial investment in staff
6 Recognize humanity and diversity
  Values and Culture
7 Common purpose in a team
8 Feeling valued
9 Being heard
10 Enjoying work
11 Being Engaged at work
12 Use of caring language
  Personalized Policies and Procedures
13 Recognition of the emotional and physical impact of healthcare work
14 Recognition of non-work personal context
15 Work/life balance is respected
16 Respecting the right to breaks
17 Being treated well when unwell
  Activities and Actions
18 Small gestures of kindness
19 Provision of emotional support

How will you implement these things within your healthcare workplace? I would love to hear your thoughts on this…

If you would like to follow the progress of my work going forward..

Follow me via @SallyPezaroThe Academic MidwifeThis blog

Until next time…Look after yourselves and each other 💚💙💜❤

Posted by & filed under Case Studies (All), LearnTech News, Library & Learning Services, Projects, Training.

Emma Dillon and Anna O’Neill

Emma and Anna

Emma Dillon  RMN,BSc,PGCE,MSc,FHEA.
MHFA Adult Instructor.
Senior Lecturer in Mental Health Nursing.
“As module leader for NPR3028P I really enjoyed working with Anne to develop a Xerte for the year 3 skills week for BSc Nursing.  Anne helped me to transform my ideas into an interactive e-learning package looking at well-being of the student/graduate nurse. It was fun to create and has really positive feedback from the students: “the well-being Xerte really motivated me to look after myself, it was fun and interactive – it really made me think” – “the Xerte reminded me of the core values of nursing and resilience”-” the well-being Xerte really bought the skills week together“.
Xerte E-Learning Package

Xerte E-Learning Package for Skills Week

Anna O’Neill
Lecturer in Practice Development
Faculty of Health and Society
“I thoroughly enjoyed learning about Xerte and the experience of using this package with our third-year student nurses.
Anne’s teaching style was such that I felt comfortable to develop the Xerte with support, so as to truly experience setting up the Xerte, learning to incorporate pictures, links and the ability for students to download their work to upload onto PebblePad.
Xerte is a fantastic way of supporting blended learning and/or distance learning.
We used Xerte for our year 3 skills development package in line with our move to Waterside and our students feedback was extremely positive”.

Xerte E-Learning Package - Skills Week

Xerte E-Learning Package - Skills Week

Posted by & filed under Blackboard Learn, downtime, LearnTech News, NILE, upgrade.

Blackboard Learn (NILE) is being upgraded on Saturday 18th August 2018 and will be unavailable from 22:30 BST until 10:30 on Sunday 19th.

The upgrade is necessary to maintain performance, stability, and security. This upgrade will also bring a new look to NILE, designed to work better on small screens and mobile devices. Some of the colours and layout will be slightly different and there will be standardised colours across all sites. If you have previously used fontawesome icons in your NILE sites, these will no longer be displayed after the upgrade, but the surrounding content will be preserved.

Posted by & filed under Uncategorized.

This follow-up study aims to investigate if Paramedic clinical simulation promotes stress and at what level is it helpful or harmful. Further investigation by way of qualitative feedback may well hold the answer to the experience of Paramedic clinical simulation and if the experience was harmful of provided benefit within a learning context.

Below follows a summary of key points discussed to date between all project partners (Paramedicine & CfLAT, AUT; Embodied Group, Chile) on the use of biometric feedback in Paramedic VR education (#MESH360 project). The key points represent a reflection on what we have learnt from the first prototype data collection event (August 2017), and considerations in preparation for the second biofeedback data collection event in late July 2018.


Methodology enhancement

  • Define baseline levels of stress (pre simulation biofeedback measurement / questionnaire)
  • Define baseline levels of GSR
  • Add sound stimulus (beep, crying person, etc.)
  • Record VR experience (first person point of view)
  • Ask participants if they recall external stimuli (multisensorial recall training)
  • Measure how the job simulation emotionally affects the student
  • Remplace pedal with a handheld unit (e.g. including gyroscope?). Note pedal will be replaced over time by algorithm (under development)
  • Replace GSR and Heart Rate units with a glove, to be able to measure biometric data during work with mannequin


Participant ID

  • Determine level of qualification / expertise / clinical background
  • Determine previous states potentially affecting biometric measurement, e.g. recent consumption of coffee, medicine or other similar products pre-simulation
  • Use Control participants (non-paramedicine related students / experts as control)
  • Cortisol measurement through saliva samples (good stress indicator – 30 min adjustments), to complement stress level measurements. Check for available kits


Pre-VR experience

  • Determine the level of stress/anxiety before the VR simulation. This is very important in entering a simulation process


VR experience

  • Increase duration of VR experience to homogenise the experience across participants (needed for comparison purposes). Ideal: Sequence of 2-3 VR scenarios, e.g. ambulance + scene 1 + scene 2
  • Make experience as immersive as possible (technology dependent). Level of VR technology used influences the experience
  • Adding multisensorial elements, e.g. sounds (ambulance, machinery, etc), smell, etc.


Potential pathways for research

  • Pre-simulation investigation (biometric baseline)
  • Simulation assessment
    • Check number of pedal (if used) hits and see if there are any patterns across demographic groups (eg novice vs expert). Important to consider level of stress before starting, during, and after the experience
  • Post-simulation assessment and debrief
  • Explore if wearing current version of embodied unit during simulation with mannequin is possible
  • Investigation of the cognitive influence of teamwork, e.g. measurement of crew mate during mannequin work
  • Amount of ‘appropriate’ Stress level for paramedicine students. Every student responds differently to stress (e.g. some act better under stress):
    • Look into how different lecturers deal with highly stressed students
    • Look into how students respond after 2-3 days of high stress scenarios
    • Start literature review on this topic (Stephen)
  • Investigation of external stimuli, e.g. sound, smell
  • Longitudinal study to follow the student journey over a 5-yr period determining evolution of stress levels across journey
  • Emotional triggers: how students connect with particular medical events that are familiar to them, e.g family members with similar experiences



Data Collection #2 (July 2018)

Methodological plan for upcoming event

  1. Participants to respond entry survey
  2. Participants will be presented with a 4 minutes long ‘Ambulance Ride’ VR experience, which will be divided as follows:
    1. Presentation of ‘calm’ scenario, e.g. nature scene, to smoothly introduce participants to the VR experience (15 seconds)
    2. Transition to static 360 Panorama of the back of the ambulance (45 seconds) to gain baseline data
    3. Transition to 360 video of the back of the ambulance including ambient sound (1 minute)
    4. Presentation of Job Description by Radio Call first, then by text box providing more details, followed by a Job update increasing complexity of job (radio first, then text box).
  3. Following the VR experience, the participants will move to do simulation work with the mannequin. Stressing ambient sound to be included
  4. Final debrief survey

Posted by & filed under academia, My Research, PhD Musings, PhD research, phd tips, Publications, publishing tips, Research, Research & writing tips, writing.

Whilst I am sure that there are many reputable companies who will publish your thesis out there, I wanted to share with you all how I published mine.

Image result for publish

First of all, I believe that if you have a PhD then your work must be adding some original knowledge to the world. That means that your work is of value, and should therefore be published and disseminated widely. This is also true for students, whose work is of great value to the academic community.

See my post here about ‘Why Midwifery and Nursing Students Should Publish their Work and How’

But here, I wanted to map out one way to publish your thesis. It is the way I published mine.

Step one…

Publish background literature reviews to outline how you arrived at your research questions. Much of this work will summarize the first chapters of your thesis. It will also help you refine your ideas if you publish as you write.

My initial chapters were published as follows:

Pezaro, S The midwifery workforce:  A global picture of psychological distress – Article inMidwives: Official journal of the Royal College of Midwives (2016): 19:33

Pezaro S Addressing psychological distress in midwives. Nursing Times (2016): 112: 8, 22-23.

Pezaro, S., Clyne, W., Turner, A., Fulton, E. A., & Gerada, C. (2015). ‘Midwives overboard! ‘Inside their hearts are breaking, their makeup may be flaking but their smile still stays on. Women and Birth 29.3 (2016): e59-e66.

Step two…

Publish your ideas around the theories used in your work.

I did this by publishing a blog on theories of work-related stress. I also published a paper exploring the ethical considerations of what I was trying to do entitled ‘Confidentiality, anonymity and amnesty for midwives in distress seeking online support – Ethical?’. Opening this up for discussion meant that my thesis was much stronger overall.

Step three…

Publish your methods via research protocols.

Not only does this mean that you have claimed the idea for yourself in the academic world, but you also then get the benefit of a wider peer review of your work. I published the protocol of my Delphi study as follows:

Pezaro, S, Clyne, W (2015) Achieving Consensus in the Development of an Online Intervention Designed to Effectively Support Midwives in Work-Related Psychological Distress: Protocol for a Delphi Study. JMIR Res Protoc 2015 (Sep 04); 4(3):e107

Step four…

Publish each chapter of your work as you go.

Again, this gives your work added peer review in the process of developing your thesis. I published the two largest pieces of research in my thesis as follows:

Pezaro, S, Clyne, W and Fulton, E.A  “A systematic mixed-methods review of interventions, outcomes and experiences for midwives and student midwives in work-related psychological distress.” Midwifery (2017). DOI:

Pezaro, S and Clyne, W “Achieving Consensus for the Design and Delivery of an Online Intervention to Support Midwives in Work-Related Psychological Distress: Results From a Delphi Study.” JMIR Mental Health3.3 (2016).

Step five…

Publish summaries of your work for different audiences

Once you begin to pull together your entire thesis, you will begin to discuss the findings and arrive at certain conclusions. You can summarise these in a series of blogs and papers as you go. I published the following summary papers to reach both national and international audiences.

Pezaro, S (2018) Securing The Evidence And Theory-Based Design Of An Online Intervention Designed To Support Midwives In Work-Related Psychological Distress (Special Theme on Women in eHealth). Journal of the International Society for Telemedicine and eHealth. Vol 6, e8. 1-12.

Pezaro, S “The case for developing an online intervention to support midwives in work-related psychological distress.” British Journal of Midwifery 24.11 (2016): 799-805.

Step six…

Use info graphics to map out key points in your thesis

Once complete, your thesis will be published in full. Mine can be accessed here via the British Library and via Coventry University’s open collections. But it’s a mighty big document. Therefore, I produced the following infographic to map out my PhD journey for those looking for a shorter, yet engaging summary.

PhD infographic

…and there you have it. A fully published PhD thesis via a variety of avenues. I hope that you enjoy publishing your PhD thesis, and that publishing it helps you to defend it.

Also…If you need a co-author, let me know!🎓😉

If you would like to follow the progress of my work going forward..

Follow me via @SallyPezaroThe Academic MidwifeThis blog

Until next time…Look after yourselves and each other 💚💙💜❤

Posted by & filed under Case Studies (All), Case Studies: Health & Society, classroom, Multicultural.

Guest post written by Jim Lusted.

“Our classrooms are changing – and I don’t mean the posh new room designs and furniture at Waterside campus. Since I started teaching at Northampton in 2009 the students I have taught have become increasingly diverse in their ethnic background. I’ve gone from having only a small handful of Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) students to now regularly teaching classes with an even split of people from white and BAME backgrounds. It’s not just in my own department, Northampton has seen a significant increase in the intake of BAME students. This isn’t, however, reflective of the sector as a whole, which has seen very little increase in ethnic diversity across the whole student intake.”

“…our research recommended that staff make a more concerted effort to create groups that offer students the chance to work with a wide range of students, not only their peer or friendship group.”

Read the whole article.

Posted by & filed under Uncategorized.


In 2016, I entered as a joint Paper Coordinator for a third-year physiotherapy undergraduate module (Managing Complexity in the Community Environment). We inherited a paper that was very didactic in delivery and required the students to incorporate their collective knowledge on the module into one Summative Assessment as a written assignment. While the assignment had to be submitted to Turnitin for a review of plagiarism; students were also required to submit the same assignment to Blackboard for the purposes of marking. This seemed non-intuitive and open for error. Student reviews for the paper in 2015 were “average” to say the least, and as incumbent Coordinators, we agreed that we would utilise creative liberty to refresh the delivery and mode of assessment.


We gathered up the teaching team to discuss a new approach to the assessment. The teaching had been delivered by four lecturers- all with their own specialty. The purpose of the paper was to demonstrate complexity in common physiotherapy conditions. With the teaching being delivered by four key lecturers- all with their own specialty- it was proposed that we adopt a problem-based learning approach, which used complex case scenarios from the four key areas as a mode to assist complex clinical reasoning and consideration of interprofessionals. These cases were delivered in small group teaching to enable discussion and exploration of the scenarios- some of which included blended learning through a virtual environment (myself) to incorporate resources they would readily utilise when on clinical and graduation, as well as to promote “investigation” of the scene- rather than providing all clinical features for the students.. .

We also wanted to emphasise the importance of good clinical documentation- in particular- referral letters to interprofessionals. Our first summative assessment, therefore, included submission of a 1 1/2 page referral letter (with 1/2 page of endnotes) that was submitted to Turnitin. By keeping the assessment relevant to the case scenarios presented in the small groups; the assessment clinically relevant; and also some creative licence (i.e. students came up with their own letterheads; business name; digital signature: and logo)- it made it all manageable for students. By submitting once to Turnitin and utilising the available marking tools (including cut and paste; user strings, etc) it made for easy turn over of feedback to students which was then utilised for the second summative assessment (clinical reasoning regarding the content of the letter).

So- this is where “To Turnitin” worked for us last year (2017):

  • Reflection on clinical problem-based learning
  • Rather than an “assignment”- assessment was relevant to a clinically useful skill that was not otherwise introduced (or assessed) in the programme (i.e. development of concise referral letters)
  • Develop consistent feedback strategies
    • Use of a Rubric for learning outcomes
    • Link comments in Turnitin directly to the learning outcomes
    • Use “QuickMarks” “Commonly Used in Turnitin
    • No information in the “User’s Comments” Section- feedback was to be provided “within” the assignment

This approach has been found to be successful by the teaching team, with the students quickly seeing the clinical relevance- rather than “just another assignment”.

Future use of Turnitin for this year (2018) may include the use of the audio feedback feature, or to consider the use of video feedback. This is something that has been used successfully in discussion with a colleague in the paramedicine department (LS). Turnitin_MCCE_Assignment




Posted by & filed under Uncategorized.

I have been using Evernote for a number of years now, though have not been conscious of how I use it. Here’s my reflection on what has worked for me:

  1. Get Premium. While the free account gets you going, I enjoy the fact that I can access the notes from a variety of devices- including offline and has a more powerful search facility (including searching pdfs and handwritten notes)
  2. Organise folders the same as email. I have used the GTD strategy of organising folders in my email. By replicating this in Evernote, I automatically organise appropriate documents into the right folder. Always problematic when you think that a key phase is best at the time, though makes no sense later on- better have the two systems using same “key words”
  3. Tag- if it works for you. Certainly helps for grouping. Personally, I find tagging more labour intensive as the built-in search tool and use of the folders above does me fine.  Others I know who use Evernote swear by the tagging…
  4. Know your Evernote email. This can be found by looking in your Account Info
  5. Know some shortcuts. When sending emails, know that:
    1. The beginning of the subject line will be the title of your note
    2. To pop your email straight into a known notebook, include “@” immediately followed by the appropriate notebook in the Subject field.
    3. Into tagging? Add “#” immediately followed by an existing tag in the Subject field
    4. Need a reminder? Include an exclamation point- e.g. Email Subject: Portfolio Meeting !2017/04/12
    5. Need all of the above? Then the order is Email Subject: [Title of Note] ![Reminder Date] @[Folder] #[Tag]
  6. Want to quickly present your info? The presentation tool is a quick and easy way to present what is in an Evernote note. Once in presentation mode, look to the far right where you can change the “Presentation Settings”, adding horizontal lines to your note to create the likes of slides…
  7. Install browser add-ins. Most browsers have add-ins that you can download to make clipping notes to Evernote a piece of cake!
  8. iOS IFTTT applets. The “if [this occurs] then do this” applets for iPhone and iPad are also handy. This might include converting your Reminders to a note, saving Instagram photos or Tweets to Evernote, quickly appending to a to-do (or shopping) note, or copying new Evernote to Onenote

Posted by & filed under Uncategorized.


Our third year, semester one physiotherapy programme aims to integrate knowledge gained from the previous two years as well as “step up” from a NCEA level six to level seven paper (Table 1). This includes a shift from a more teacher-directed approach to that being mainly student-directed learning (SDL). This in itself required an integration of knowledge from multiple papers (fields), problem-solving unfamiliar (and at times complex) scenarios and learning through leading others in the development of problem solutions.  In student feedback of papers in semester one, year three, students identified as being (somewhat understandably) anxious of the workload; felt unclear as to where to start; and that “bringing it together” was overwhelming. These concerns, therefore, reflected on a paper that I coordinate (PHTY710) in that semester.

Table 1: NZQF Level Descriptors (adapted from Table 2, The New Zealand Qualifications Framework p30)


Level 5 Level 6 Level 7 Level 8 Level 9 Level 10
Knowledge Broad operational or technical and theoretical knowledge within a specific field of work or study Specialised technical or theoretical knowledge with depth in a field of work or study Specialised technical or theoretical knowledge with depth in one or more fields of work or study Advanced technical and/or theoretical knowledge in a discipline or practice, involving a critical understanding of the underpinning key principles Highly specialised knowledge, some of which is at the forefront of knowledge, and a critical awareness of issues in a field of study or practice Knowledge at the most advanced frontier of a field of study or professional practice
Skills Select and apply a range of solutions to familiar and sometimes unfamiliar problems Analyse and generate solutions to familiar and unfamiliar problems Analyse, generate solutions to unfamiliar and sometimes complex problems Analyse, generate solutions to complex and sometimes unpredictable problems Develop and apply new skills and techniques to

existing or emerging problems

Critical reflection on existing knowledge or practice and the creation of new knowledge
  Select and apply a range of standard and non-standard processes relevant to the field of work or study Select and apply a range of standard and non-standard processes relevant to the field of work or study Select, adapt and apply a range of processes relevant to the field of work or study Evaluate and apply a range of processes relevant to the field of work or study Mastery of the field of study or practice to an advanced level  
Application [of knowledge and skills] Complete self- management of learning and performance within defined contexts Complete self- management of learning and performance within dynamic contexts Advanced generic skills and/or specialist knowledge

and skills in a professional context or field of study

Developing identification with a profession and/

or discipline through application of advanced generic skills and/or specialist knowledge and skills

Independent application of highly specialised

knowledge and skills within a discipline or professional practice

Sustained commitment to the professional integrity and to the development of new ideas or practices at the forefront of discipline or

professional practice

  Some responsibility for the management of learning and performance of others Responsibility for leadership within dynamic contexts   Some responsibility for integrity of profession or discipline

Some responsibility for leadership within the profession or discipline

In order to capture anticipated SDL habits, barriers to learning and confidence in skills related to the paper. To do this I developed a Google Form survey which was delivered in the first lecture of the paper. First, I mapped out the types of questions I wanted to include (study group involvement; anticipated SDL hours; barriers to learning; and confidence in practical assessment and treatment skills). From there, development of the Google Form survey was relatively easy.  On opening a new form, a brief description was provided. While I had just done this verbally in the lecture, I wanted to acknowledge that the purpose of students entering their personal email was to receive in individual “snapshot” of their learning (which they could return to compare at a later date). Lecturers did not respond to individual reflections, rather, looked at the overall summary.


I chose Google Forms to develop the survey for a number of reasons that were beneficial:

  1. It is free. While there are other online survey platforms available, they sometimes come with limits to access to some of the editing tools and/ or how many responses you are able to collect before you have to pay. Google Forms does not have these limits and has some third-party plugins that can be utilised to export data into other software platforms
  2. It is linked to Google Drive. As a novice to Google Drive, I have been trying to utilise it as best I can. Like other “cloud-based” storage systems, you are able to share a link to the document; and can edit to meet your needs as time goes by. Previously I have set up a link to a document/ form with a Bitly address or QR Code to find that it is “not quite right”, though adapting the form would require changing the link and code. With Google Drive, you do not need to make these changes as long as the original document you are amending is in the Drive.
  3. It is (mostly) familiar. Students here in New Zealand have been made aware of the use of Google Drive and Google for Education platform since primary school (year three- 6-7-year-olds). Therefore, access, the look, expectations for submission did not need too much explanation.
  4. Data can be exported. Again, similar to (1) above, the quantitative and qualitative data can be easily exported to third-party platforms freely. While analysis could be made in Google Sheets- I am personally still too familiar with formulas in Excel to give that up.


  1. It requires smart devices or laptops to work. If you want to capture data immediately (as was the case for this survey to enable a 24hour turnaround of interpretation to direct integration in the tutorials)- then students need to have brought their devices with them. This could be pre-empted by sending an announcement to the student prior to the lecture.
  2. It requires reliable wifi. A couple of years ago- this would have been problematic in our University, though thankfully, not the case now. This is something to consider for those that are performing the survey at a distance or in remote, rural areas.
  3. It is not familiar with non-school leavers. As this was a class of third-year students, the majority had transitioned to having smart devices and use of technology. The format of online surveys was less familiar to those that had not recently left the secondary school environment. That said- I had no “mature” students identify an issue with completing the survey, and as I could see the names of the respondents, they had completed the form just as ably as their younger counterparts…


As the survey was conducted in the lecture, the response rate was 93% (120/ 129). The summary of results was collated easily as was using Google Forms analytics. The result summaries were then used to develop the tutorials for that week (i.e. the next three days) and were presented to the small groups which are between 18 and 25 students.

Study work barriers

This survey found that less than half (48.3%) had not established themselves in study groups. As this was the beginning of a new year, students are rearranged into new groups according to the papers they are taking- therefore may have had an effect on already established groups. 44% (n=57) indicated that they would be studying alongside work commitments; 1% (n=9) with high-level sports commitments; 28% (n=36) had a family commitment that may be barriers to their SDL for the paper. These barriers were not surprising, though the extent to how many were required to continue to work, sport and family commitments was somewhat revealing. The work-study-life balance is one that potentially requires more emphasis as students enter full-time study and/ or when the academic level of expectations increases.

In a recent survey across seven universities in Canada, students expressed concern with balancing work, family, and education (20.8%), failing to set aside enough time for study while meeting personal, family and social obligations (14.4%) (Sauve, Fortin, Viger, & Landry,  2018). In a sample population of 2291 college and university  students aged 18- 26 years of age, it was found that working while studying reduced the amount of time spent in class by 47 minutes and on SDL by 56 minutes, with other extracurricular activities (i.e. sport) lead to 22 minutes less SDL. (Crispin & Nickolaou, 2018).

SDL Hours

It was also interesting to see the overestimate of SDL hours that students felt they would be completing towards this paper. While the majority (58.3%) mentioned 5-9 hours; they were some that thought they would be committing 10- 14 hours (9.2%) or 15-19 hours (5%). If combined with other papers to be completed in the semester, this would equate to up to 76 SDL hours alone… A summary of the results was able to be presented during the tutorial time, as was reassurance that our expectation of SDL hours was much less than what some had indicated.

Confidence of Skills

The main purpose of the survey was to help the students to identify early what skills they were confident with as they entered the paper. Skills that the students were “less confident” with were integrated into the planning of the tutorials for the first week using problem-based learning. Some students just needed a few pointers as reassurance that they did know the information required, while for others it was a “gentle reminder” to include it in their study plan…

End of Semester Review

We issued the survey again at the end of the semester to identify progression and to focus again on skills that they were less confident with two weeks prior to the examinations. These practical skills were focused on in the “review” tutorials that were again case based.  It was pleasing to see that students identified an average of 9% improved confidence in performing all 34 skills (range 2- 19%). New skills introduced in the paper were also rated on confidence, though could be reviewed again before the students enter their “intern” fourth year of the programme.


Crispin, L.M. & Nicolaou, D. (2018). Work and play take school time away? The impact of extracurricular and work time on educational time for live-at-home college students. Applied Economics, 50(24), 2698- 2718. Doi: 10.1080/00036846.2017.1406656

Sauve, L., Fortin, A., Viger, C. & Landry, F. (2018). Ineffective learning strategies: a significant barrier to post-secondary perseverance. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 42(2), 205- 222. Doi: 10.1080/13504851.2017.1343443